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EFnet Oper Guide
Last update : 01-25-2001
Written and maintained by Riedel
E-Mail : vink@vuurwerk.nl 1. Commands you should know about
2. The client of your choice
3. Your primary responsibilities
4. Re-routing
4.1 Re-routing other servers and remote connects
5. Kills and klines
6. Kill and K-Line requests
7. Happy birthday!
8. Security
9. Know who your friends are
10. The TCM bot
11. Modern Oper-dom, Hybrid 7 1. Commands you should know about This is no longer covered here. IRCD-hybrid is changing too rapidly, so
this section would be outdated in no time ;) For an up-to-date version,
please download the latest hybrid at www.ircd-hybrid.org. 2. The client of your choice There are many IRC clients around for a wide variety of operating systems.
Being an IRC Operator doesn't *require* you to use a UNIX client, however
i personally prefer UNIX-based clients. If you're familiar with UNIX and
use UNIX for opering, i suggest ircII / epic. There are a lot of scripts
available for those two clients, and it's not that hard to write scripts
yourself to suite your needs. It is important that you know how to operate
your client, and familiarize yourself with the options and features. For
whatever client you chose this goes for any of them : You should be in
control of your client, instead of the client being in control of you. Resources : www.mirc.co.uk- mIRC (MS-Windows)
www.irchelp.org- a variety of clients and scripts
ftp.blackened.com- several UNIX based clients available 3. Your primary responsibilities As an IRC Operator, you're responsible for maintaining the server on a
real-time basis. You represent your server, and you represent the network.
Irresponsible / rude / offensive / stupid behavior may discredit your server
and the network. You should focus on the task you were chosen for...
maintainance. Sounds simple, no ? It means getting rid of users that abuse
the service, enforcing the server's policy and keeping the server linked.
Users will ask you questions, and expect you to know all the answers.. after
all, you're the oper! Be prepared for users trying to fool you, sweet talk you into things you
don't want, lie and deceive. Most users are handling in good faith...
however, the abusers have learned how to manipulate opers. They have studied
the alien creature 'oper' for ages like biologists study animals. Be
paranoid, be curious and be suspicious. I can't stress the importancy of that
often enough. Second priority has the network. You were not chosen to maintain the network
but you were chosen to maintain the server. However, you may want to be able
to reroute servers. If you see something broken, don't be afraid to fix it.
If you do, be sure you fix things and don't make it worse. Before you
step into routing, be sure you've familiarized yourself with the network's
topology, and be confident enough to perform such actions. (re)routing is
covered in the next chapter. Opers on the network depend on a trusting relationship. You can usually take
the word from an oper. Other opers are considered -trusted-. However, there
are exceptions. Sometimes even opers lie to opers to get things done. Don't
be afraid to ask for proof of a certain statement. For example, logs.
This doesn't mean you distrust the oper in question, but -you- and you alone
are responsible for your actions. You call the shots on your server, unless
your admin says otherwise. 4. Re-routing Re-routing is not hard, and it's not scary but it is important that you do it
right. The commands you'll use are SQUIT and CONNECT. First, a very simple
example. Let's say your server, irc.yourserver.com is lagged to it's uplink,
irc.uplink.com and you want to reroute your server. You have to think about
where you want your server to be linked, and you have to time your reroute.
An example topology :

irc.yourserver.com ---- irc.uplink.com
| |
B C D
/
E F
/
G H --- O
/ | |
I J K L M

N In this case, you're uplinked by irc.uplink.com
irc.uplink.com also hubs B, C and D. Server B functions as hub for E and F,
F hubs G and H, H hubs L, M and O. G hubs I, J and K. M hubs N.
Your server is allowed to connect to server B, F and G. So you consider the
servers you're able to connect to. Is the lag caused by a server that uplinks
irc.uplink.com ? Use /stats ? irc.uplink.com to determine lag to the other
servers. If irc.uplink.com does not respond, the lag is to your uplink. If
so, you cannot be sure about the state of the other uplinks, so you'd have to
get on a remote server and determine lag by using /stats ? and /trace. For
example, you could connect to server N, and /trace yournick. Yournick, being
the nick on your server. You'll see which route it takes, and what the
problem server is. Example /trace output : S:[SERVER-N ] V:[2.8/hybrid] U:[SERVER-M ]
S:[SERVER-M ] V:[2.8/hybrid] U:[SERVER-H ]
S:[SERVER-H ] V:[2.8/hybrid] U:[SERVER-F ]
S:[SERVER-F ] V:[2.8/hybrid] U:[SERVER-B ]
S:[SERVER-B ] V:[2.8/hybrid] U:[irc.uplink.com ]
S:[irc.uplink.com ] V:[2.8/hybrid] U:[irc.yourserver.com ] The trace doesn't complete... server-b announces irc.uplink.com, and
irc.uplink.com announces your server. Your server should return something
like : S:[irc.yourserver.] OPER [yournick!user@yourhost] If it doesn't, we know the lag is only between yourserver and uplink.
Usually if there is lag between your server and your uplink, the send-queue
rises. This is not always the case. Sometimes your server can write perfectly
to your uplink, but not reverse. That is called one sided lag. We pick server B to link to. It means we have to SQUIT and CONNECT.
To unlink from irc.uplink.com and connect to SERVER_B we'd type :
/quote SQUIT irc.uplink.com :reroute
/connect SERVER_B we *DON'T* SQUIT irc.yourserver.com... and I'll try to explain why :
If we wanted to remove hub M from the network, and with it N, we'd issue
a SQUIT M. An SQUIT follows a path, relays the SQUIT request to each server
in that path. Finally it reaches server H, which is the hub for M. Server H
sees the SQUIT and drops the link to M. Now a different situation, we want to separate yourserver, uplink, C and D
from the rest of the network, in order to reroute. We'd have to SQUIT server
B, since we want the -uplink- of server B (being irc.uplink.com) to drop the
link to server B. If you'd SQUIT irc.yourserver.com, you ask yourserver.com to drop the link to
itself, which is impossible. If you SQUIT irc.uplink.com, you ask yourserver
to drop the link to uplink, which is what we want to do. After the SQUIT and CONNECT, the new situation looks like this : irc.uplink.com
| |
irc.yourserver.com -- B C D
/
E F
/
G H --- O
/ | |
I J K L M

N If yourserver is a Hub, it makes the situation more complex, since your
actions have more impact. 4.1 - Re-routing other servers and remote connects Example topology : irc.uplink.com
| |
irc.yourserver.com -- B C D
/
E F
/
G H --- O
/ | |
I J K L M

N Let's say, hub H is way lagged to F, but G to F is fine... we want to reroute
H, and stick H to G. We'd do : /quote SQUIT serverh :re-routing you babe
/connect serverh 6667 serverg A global wallops will be sent :
!serverg! Remote CONNECT serverh 6667 from ItsMe When re-routing, always give the server some time to prevent nick collides.
When there is lag, people will connect to another server. When you SQUIT and
CONNECT to fast, a lot of those clients will be collided. Also, stick to your
territory. How enthusiastic you may be, you cannot route the world. If you're
an oper on the US side, stick to the US side when re-routing. Needless to
say, if you're EU, keep it to EU ;) 5. Kills and klines As an oper, you're given the incredible power *cough* of KILL and KLINE.
/kill nick reason disconnects a client from IRC with the specified reason.
A /quote kline *evil@*.dude.org :reason here bans the user from your server.
Abusive kills and klines may draw attacks to your server, so always consider
if a kline or kill is deserved. If the server gets attacked after a valid
kill or kline, well.. tough luck. You should never be 'afraid' to kline
anyone on your server. If it's a good reason, make it so. Even if you know
it may cause the server to be attacked. Maybe good to think about is this :
- if /ignore solves the problem rather than a kick, /ignore
- kick if a ban is unneeded
- ban if a /kill is unwarranted for
- kill rather than kline if that solves the problem
- kline when a server ban is really needed. You kline a user when you absolutely don't want this user to use the service
your server is providing. Crosskills (killing users on another server) are another issue. Some admins
don't care if users get /kill'ed off their server, for any reason or no
reason at all... and other admins are very anal about it. A good way to go
(IMO) is to issue a KILL if there is an absolute need for the target user to
be disconnected. If there are active opers on that server, let them handle
it. They'll be upset if you /kill a user off their server, without
contacting them. /stats p irc.server.here shows the active opers on a
particular server. Some opers have multiple o-lines and are not watching all
sessions. If you can't find an active oper on a server, you can
/quote operwall a request for opers from that server. Ghost KILLs are another story, an often misunderstood one.
When you see a /KILL from an oper with the reason 'ghosted' they usually
KILL a client that's about to ping timeout. That is not what a ghost is!
To quote Dianora : "a ghost happens because a client misses being killed when
it should be. Its a race condition due to nick chasing". In other words,
Server X thinks client A has been KILLed, while server Y missed the KILL
for that client. 6. Kill and K-Line requests As previously mentioned, if an oper from another server contacts you and
requests a kill or a kline for a local client with a good reason, you can
usually trust this request. Opers depend on a trusting relationship. However,
since you're responsible for the kill or kline, it is not rude to ask for
proof. It depends on the oper making the request how thats interpreted, but
the way they respond to asking for proof tells more about them than about
you. The more and longer you oper, how better you get to know the other opers.
You know who is Mr. honest, you'll know who are lying and deceiving. Before
you acquire this knowledge, you can merely rely on common sense and
instincts. You'll probably make mistakes occasionally, and thats nothing to
be ashamed of. Opers are - despite contrary believes - human. Users occasionally will ask you to kill or kline a user/bot too. Some
requests are straight-forward and clear, others require you to be cautious. I
recommend to always investigate such requests, and when you're confident the
request is valid, issue the kill or kline. 7. Happy birthday! It is a custom on EFnet to birthday /kill opers of whom it is his/her
birthday. Not all opers like this, but typically those opers don't let
others know about their birthday. You'll notice that the KILLS say a lot
about who likes who and who is friends with who. Whether you want to
participate, is entirely up to you. 8. Security As with any privilege, you have to handle it cautiously and responsibly.
Be sure that your o/O line doesn't get compromised! Oper only from secure
hosts. You and only you should know your password. Don't share your oper
account, and make your oper password a UNIQUE one. If your o/O line gets
compromised, nasty things may/will happen. Imagine an oper with crosskill
capabilities who's operline gets 'hacked'... the results are often
disastrous and you will lose respect and trust from others. It can cause
your oper privileges to be revoked, or even the server to be (temporarily)
de-linked. 9. Know who your friends are As an oper you will get a lot of users that want to be 'friends' with you.
Users offer you free* access to their *nix servers, ops in channels,
unlimited leech access to the biggest and fastest warez sites *gasp* and
more. They want favors in return. They say they don't but they truly want
something in return. They -expect- something in return. You could either
don't respond to such offers, or use them. The last option creates an even
more distorted image of opers and doesn't do any good for the user -> oper
relationship. Your *real* friends are usually the persons who were your
friends _before_ you acquired the extra privileges. 10. The TCM Bot A TCM bot can be a valuable tool for opers. It keeps record of all connected
clients, flags clients with multiple connections and has all sorts of other
useful commands. There are three different kind of TCM's in use on EFnet,
being OOMon, TCM-Dianora and TCM-Hybrid. Every one of them requires you to
log in to be able to access the privileged commands. On OOMon you DCC chat
the TCM bot and do '.auth yournick' where yournick is your oper name in your
o/O line. In TCM-Dianora and TCM-Hybrid you register with :
'.register yourpass', where yourpass is your password ;)
All TCM commands start with a period. If you forget the period, the text goes
into the 'partyline', where it is echoed to all connected opers. Resources :http://toast.blackened.com/oomon/help
http://www.db.net/~db/tcm.html 11. Modern Oper-dom - Hybrid 7 Unfortunately these times are drastic times, and drastic times require
drastic measures. EFnet has been the playground of takeover groups and other
scum. The services provided to the EFnet community have been heavily abused.
DoS attacks against servers is something we see every day. Modern Oper-dom is
a timeage where we have been forced to obscure information from our users, so
that they cannot use it against us. It is also a timeage where new features
give the user more control to remedy the problems. We'll cover a few of those
features that have been implemented in ircd-hybrid-7. Flood Throttling : The newest Hybrid IRCd offers users flood protection to a certain extent.
Anyone who floods the channel with text, CTCP's, or any other junk
imaginable will be throttled. Massive flood attacks will have little impact.

Server side ignore : Every user has the umode +g at their disposal. Umode +g is a server-side
ignore to ignore everyone. When the user is messaged, he'll be informed
with a notice and can use /quote ACCEPT nick to be able to receive
messages from this user. The problem with client side ignores is that
the client does receive the info, but just doesn't respond. It acts like
it doesn't see it... but the sendq will keep on rising. Umode +g gets
rid of this problem. Hiding Chanops : Mode +a has been added to the available channel modes. A non-op cannot see
who's opped, halfopped and voiced. Hence, someone who's interested in taking
over the channel doesn't know whom to target. Did i mention 'halfopped' ?
Oh gee, yes i did! ;p Halfops : You can recognize a HalfOp by the % before the nick.
A halfop can kick non-ops from the channel and set bans but cannot deop
nor kick full chanops. Virtual Channels At this point it is uncertain if the command to create a virtual channel
should be an oper only command or not. A virtual channel is a situation where
you have multiple instances of the same channel. An example : (The way it will be implemented is still uncertain, so this may not be a
realistic situation) User Joe wants to join #nederland /join #nederland
*** #nederland : has 2 possible virtual channels available
*** #nederland !Riedel !kaaZ This means that there is one #nederland version, and Riedel has joined it
first kaaZ has joined the second channel #nederland. Lets say kaaZ is a
friend of Joe, and Joe wants to join kaaZ's version of the channel.
/join #nederland !kaaZ If Joe was a bad guy and took over kaaZ'es version of the channel, kaaZ would
just start a new instance of the same channel (or requests it) and nothing
would've changed. Virtual channels will make channel takeovers useless. To decrease the frequence of attacks, hybrid also hides the topology of the
IRC network to the mere user. Certain information that gives an indication
about its structure has been removed. Server Hiding is optional and will
probably be used to hide hubs. Server names have been removed from WHOIS.
This is not to annoy the mere user, but merely the removal of information
that's been used against us on structural basis by the abusers. It will
not ban out DoS attacks completely, but it will help a lot. IRC was meant
to be about having fun, to be able to communicate with thousands of others
all over the world. Let's get back to that point. Questions / Comments / Suggestions are welcome.
You can e-mail me : vink@vuurwerk.nl Best regards, Riedel --
And on the seventh day, He exited from append mode.

Мнения от посетители (5):
|ViRuS| (анонимен)29.12.03 15:29:15
Irc Operator
Tova li e edinstveniq na4in da stane6 Irc Oper kato si napravi6 tvoi server? Dokato 4etoh tozi tekst si pomislih 4e tova 6te e malko trudno da se napravi!

slappy (анонимен)05.10.03 08:05:39
tova za operquide stava vapros
ami da vi kaja 4esno as go pro4etoh no predstavete si 4e ne znam angliiski kvo stava togava(kak 6te znam kak moga da stana oper ili pravilata za opers)

american_boy (анонимен)20.03.02 20:20:42
nikak we
ti nemoish we

ivo (анонимен)15.01.02 22:15:16
how can i be operator
i want ot be operator

american_boy (анонимен)04.01.02 17:04:20
da prevlichme hora
az mislq che nie mogeme da imame mnogo hora v nashia chat.
kato pusnem 5 choveka da vzemat hora.i to dosta.

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